English Lords : Kerry, Shelburne, Lansdowne, Leigh

"Marquis" or "Marquess"
The Oxford dictionaries give "marquis" as the preferred spelling. Modern records of the House of Lords and a large majority of web sites use "marquess". (Therefore, the viewer should try both spellings when using a search engine.) Members of our extended families who held this title used both spellings.55, 65

 William FitzMaurice, 20th Baron of Kerry
(Irish Peerage)

Born 1633; died 1696 or 169779.

William, the 20th Baron, marks a turning point in the genetic and cultural heritage of the Barons of Kerry. Since the earlier Barons took Irish wives, William, the 20th Baron, had a genetic heritage very little different from that of the average Irishman living in Kerry (about 50% Celtic, 45% Norse, and 5% misc.). William, however, had an English wife. Since the subsequent Barons of Kerry were absentee landlords who lived in England, most of them also married English women. Henry, the Baron of Kerry during the genocide of the 1840's, was probably 15/16 English.

William, the 20th Baron, fought on the English side at the Battle of the Boyne (1 Jul 1690) and in France. 215

In Ref. 39, pp. 212-213, I found the following entry:

A list of Claims on Lands Forfeited in the County Kerry in the Revolution of 1688, extracted from a work entitled - "A Book of Claims as they were entered with the trustees at Chichester House, Dublin, on or before the 10th of August 1700. Printed at Dublin 1701." No. 354, Lord Kerry claims a Chief Rent in fee on the lands of Ballinorig, Ballymac Andrew and others, by Deeds of Lease and Release dated 10th of August 1666, Forfeiting Proprietor, James FitzMaurice.

Circa 1665, William (20th Baron) married Constance (d. 12 Oct 1685), daughter of William Long and had (with two daughters) three sons79:

1. Thomas FitzMaurice, 21st Baron of Kerry and 1st Earl of Kerry (b. 1668).

2. William of Gallane, Co. Kerry, Col. in the Army, who married Deborah, daughter of Sir John Brookes, Bt., and had three children:

  • John FitzMaurice of Springfield Castle, Co. Limerick, who married his first cousin, Anne, daughter of James FitzMaurice, of Kilmihill, and was father of John FitzMaurice, of Springfield Castle, whose only child and heiress, Anne, married Sir Robert Tilson Deane, 1st Lord Muskerry.
     
  • Mary, who (13 Feb 1734) married her first cousin, John, 1st Earl of Shelburne and had two children.
    • William Petty-FitzMaurice (2 May 1737 — 7 May 1805), 2nd Earl of Shelburne and 1st Marquis of Lansdowne.
    • Thomas Petty-FitzMaurice, of Liewenny Hall, Denbighshire
      (1742 — 28 Oct 1793) (grandfather of Thomas FitzMaurice, 5th Earl of Orkney)
       
  • Elizabeth, who married Archbishop Hort.

3. James (Capt.), of Kilmihill, who married Catherine, daughter and heiress of William Harman, of Dublin, and had two children:

  • Harman, who married Margaret, daughter of Gamaliel FitzGerald.
     
  • Anne, who married firstly, 1720, John Odell of Bolderoghy; and secondly, 1732, her first cousin, John FitzMaurice, of Springfield Castle.79

 

Thomas FitzMaurice,
21st Baron of Kerry and 1st Earl of Kerry
(Irish Peerage)

Born 1668. Died 16 Mar 1741 at Lixnaw. Interment 21 Mar 1741 at Killtomy.

Thomas, the 21st Baron of Kerry, was created Viscount Clanmaurice in 1722225 and the 1st Earl of Kerry (peerage of Ireland)218 from 17 Jan 1722.

On 14 Jan 1692, Thomas (1st Earl of Kerry) married Anne Petty (daughter of Sir William Petty) and had at five sons and three daughters:

  • William FitzMaurice (1694 — 1747), 2nd Earl of Kerry
     
  • John Petty-FitzMaurice (1706 — 1761) who succeeded to the Petty estates and received the title "1st Earl of Shelburne" (2nd creation) in return for adding the name "Petty" (the name of his maternal grandfather) to his own surname. His grandfather, Sir William Petty (Justiciar of Ireland under Cromwell), had no male heir.  Baron Wycombe 1760.
  • Thomas I, James, and Thomas II, each of whom died young.
  • Elizabeth (d. 1757)who married Maurice Crosbie (1688-1762), 1st Baron Branden.
  • Arbella (1707-1792) who married Arthur Denny (d. 1742)
  • Charlotte (d. 1774)who married Sir John Colthurst Bt. (d. 1775)

 

William FitzMaurice, 2nd Earl of Kerry
(Irish Peerage)

(b. 1694; d. 4 Apr 1747 in Lixnaw)

Son of Thomas FitzMaurice, 1st Earl of Kerry.

William became a Privy Councilor, a Colonel of Coldstream Guards (English army), Gov. of Ross Castle, and "Custos Rotulorum" of Co. Kerry.218

On 29 Jun 1738, William (2nd Earl from 1842) married Gertrude Lambert and had a son, Francis Thomas FitzMaurice (1740 — 1818), 3rd Earl of Kerry.

 

Francis Thomas FitzMaurice,
3rd Earl of Kerry
(Irish Peerage)

Born 9 Sep 1740.
Died 4 Jul 1818 at Hampton Court Green, Richmond, England.
Interment 11 Jul 1818 in Westminster Abbey, London, England

Son of William FitzMaurice, 2nd Earl of Kerry.

Francis was educated by the Chancellor of Ireland.215

On 18 Mar 1768, Francis (3rd Earl) married Anastasia Daly. Frances (3rd Earl from 1747) sold all the Kerry Estates and d.s.p.

 

John Petty-FitzMaurice,
1st Earl of Shelburne
(Irish Peerage)

Apparently the title "Earl of Shelburne" was also held by John's uncle, Henry Petty, but became extinct when he died in 1751. The title was recreated for John225 on 26 Jun 1753.

Born 1706; died in May 1761.

Son of Thomas FitzMaurice, 1st Earl of Kerry.

John married his first cousin, Mary FitzMaurice, and had at least two sons:

  1. William Petty-Fitzmaurice (2 May 1737 — 7 May 1805), 2nd Earl of Shelburne 1761, 1st Viscount Calne & Calstone 1784, 1st Earl of Wycombe 1784, and 1st Marquis of Lansdowne 1784.
     
  2. Thomas Petty-Fitzmaurice, of Liewenny Hall, Denbighshire, Wales
    (1742 — 28 Oct 1793) who married Mary O'Bryen (1755-1831) Countess of Orkney and dau. of 1st Marquess of Thomond.

 

William Petty-Fitzmaurice,
1st Marquis of Lansdowne

Born 2 May 1737 in Dublin, Ireland.
Baptized 13 May 1737.
Died 7 May 1805 at Lansdowne House, Berkeley Square, London.
Interment: High Wycombe

Son of John Petty-FitzMaurice, 1st Earl of Shelburne.

Hereditary Titles
2nd Earl of Shelburne (from 1761)
Viscount Fitzmaurice
Baron Dunkeron and Lord Wycombe
Baron of Chipping Wycombe
Earl Wycombe of Chipping Wycombe
Viscount Calne and Calstone (from 1784)
1st Marquis of Lansdowne (from 6 Dec 1784)

Prime Minister of England (Jul 1782-Apr 1783)

William was educated privately and at Christ Church, Oxford (1755-1757).

He served in the army during the Seven Years' War (which lasted from 1756 to 1763 and included the "French and Indian War" in North America).

Politics
William was elected to Parliament from the borough of Chipping Wycombe in 1760 and 1761. Upon his father's death in May 1761, he became ineligible to sit in the House of Commons and moved to the House of Lords.

In 1763, William became first lord of trade in the Grenville ministry but resigned within a few months. In 1766, he served as secretary of state for the southern department under William Pitt. He resigned in 1768. In 1782, he became home secretary under Lord Rockingham and was appointed prime minister in July 1782 upon the death of Rockingham.  He played a key role in negotiating a peace treaty with France and the United States of America, thereby bringing an end to the American Revolution. The final terms relating to the United States of America were similar to those that William had proposed from the beginning of the Revolution. More details can be found in Ref. 240.

William was defeated in 1783.  He was created Marquis of Lansdowne in 1784 and, thereafter, was no longer active in political affairs.

Boston, Massachusetts, and seven nearby communities have each named one of their streets "Lansdowne" to memorialize the 1st Marquis of Lansdowne because of his attitude toward the American colonies during the American Revolution. He consistently opposed the policies of George III towards the colonies in North America. He paid a political price for taking this position, which is still characterized in some English texts as "arrogance and aloofness".

The Lansdowne Portrait
In April 1796, Senator William Bingham of Philadelphia and his wife, Anne Bingham, commissioned Gilbert Stuart to paint a portrait of George Washington as a present for the Marquis of Lansdowne. This portrait, generally known as the "Lansdowne Portrait", was the first full length portrait of President Washington. Sen. Bingham described the Marquis as "a warm friend to the United States".

Ownership of the portrait eventually passed to Lord Harry Dalmeny whose family had owned the painting since c.1900. In 2001, he said that he planned to sell the portrait.

On March 14th, the Las Vegas-based Donald W. Reynolds Foundation donated $30 million to provide $20 million for the purchase of the painting, $4 million to pay for a permanent installation for the "Lansdowne" at the portrait gallery, and $6 million to finance a tour of the Lansdowne portrait around the United States. The portrait had been on anonymous loan to the National Portrait Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution since 1968. It is now owned by the National Portrait Gallery.229

Nuclear Family
On 3 Feb 1765, William (1st Marquis) married Sophia Carteret (26 Aug 1745--5 Jan 1771) at Chapel Royal, St. James Palace, England, and had two sons:

1. William Granville Petty-FitzMaurice (1768-1778)

2. John Henry Petty-FitzMaurice (6 Dec 1765--London 15 Nov 1809), 2nd Marquis of Lansdowne, who d.s.p. On 27 May 1809, in London, John (2nd Marquis) married Maria Arabella Maddox (widowed)225 , Lady Gifford (d. 24 Apr 1833 in London).

In London, on 19 Jul 1779, William (1st Marquis) married Louisa FitzPatrick (1755--London 7 Aug 1789) at St. George's, Bloombury. They had one child:

1. Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice (2 Jul 1780--31 Jan 1863), 3rd Marquis of Lansdowne (from 1809).

 

Related web sites:
Infoplease: 1st Marquis of Lansdowne, 2nd Earl of Shelburne

Prime Minister, 1st Marquis of Lansdowne, 2nd Earl of Shelburne
Shelburne Lodge, Kenmare, Co. Kerry

 

 

John Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice,
2nd Marquis of Lansdowne

(6 Dec 1765--London 15 Nov 1809)
Interred: 23 Nov 1809, Paddington, Middlesex.

Son of William Petty-Fitzmaurice, 1st Marquis of Lansdowne.

On 27 May 1805, John (2nd Marquis) married Maria Arabella at 33 Mount Street, Hanover Square, London.

John (2nd Marquis) d. s. p.

 

Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice,
3rd Marquis of Lansdowne, 4th Earl of Kerry

Born 2 Jul 1780 in Shelburne House, Berkeley Square, London
Died 31 Jan 1863 at Bowood

Son of William Petty-Fitzmaurice, 1st Marquis of Lansdowne.

Henry was Home Secretary from 16 Jul 1827 to 26 Jan 1828.

Henry inherited the title Baron and Earl of Kerry and Viscount Clanmaurice from Francis (3rd Earl of Kerry). He inherited from his father (1st Marquis of Lansdowne) the titles Marquis of Lansdowne, Earl Wycombe, Earl of Shelburne, Viscount Calne and Calstone, Lord Wycombe, Baron Chippinw Wycombe, Viscount Fitzmaurice, and Baron Dunkeron215.

Henry (3rd Marquis) was the Earl of Kerry during the genocide in Ireland in the 1840s.

On 30 Mar 1808, Henry (3rd Marquis) married Louisa Emma Fox-Strangways (27 Jun 1785--Bowood Park 3 Apr 1851), Principal Lady of the Bedchamber, in Melbury and had three children:

  • Louisa Petty-Fitzmaurice (d. 12 Jun 1906) who, on 10 Feb 1845, married the Hon James Kenneth Howard (5 Mar 1814--7 Jan 1882)
     
  • William Thomas Petty-Fitzmaurice, 5th Earl of Kerry, MP (b. Lansdowne House 30 Mar 1811; d. Lansdowne House 21 Aug 1836). In London on 18 Mar 1834, he married Lady Augusta Lavinia Priscilla Ponsonby (b. 11 May 1814; d. at Wimbledon Common on 19 Nov 1904). They had a daughter, Mary Caroline (d. 17 Sep 1927) who, on 4 Oct 1860, married Hon Sir Percy Egerton Herbert (15 Apr 1822--7 Oct 1876).
     
  • Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 4th Marquis of Lansdowne (7 Jan 1816--5 Jul 1866).

Related genealogical sites:
Biography Online: Lansdowne, Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd marquess of

Lansdowne Emigration Plan

 

Genocide of the 1840s

Part of the penalty for being a Catholic in Ireland during the early 19th Century was the status of impoverished tenant farmer. The entire useful production of the farm was needed to pay the rent. The Catholics were required to subsist primarily on the potatoes that they raised on rocky soil good for nothing else. When the potato blight arrived in the 1840's and destroyed the potato crop, approximately one million Irish Catholics died of starvation and related diseases.64

In every year of the 1840's, the food raised in Ireland was more than enough to feed every inhabitant of the country.64 The food, however, was exported under guard by British troops. Many a Catholic was murdered by the English when he tried to prevent the export of food from a country of starving people to England and the world market. Although some landowners (including the Marquis of Lansdowne) tried to alleviate the misery of their tenants, neither the monarch, nor the prime minister, nor any significant group in the Government, sought to implement a compassionate global solution such as would be put in place today in equivalent circumstances. The result was passive genocide.

 

Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice,
4th Marquis of Lansdowne

Son of Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 3rd Marquis of Lansdowne.

Born 7 Jan 1816 at Lansdowne House, Berkeley Square, London.
Died 5 Jul 1866 at Lansdowne House, Berkeley Square, London.

Henry (4th Marquis) was a Member of the House of Lords, Lord of the Treasury (1847), Under Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (1856 -- 58), and a Member of the Privy Council.215

Investiture as Knight of the Garter in 1864.

On 18 Aug 1840, in Wilton,Wiltshire, Henry (4th Marquis) married Lady Georgiana Herbert (b. 3 Aug 1817 in Wilton; d. 28 Feb 1841 in Wilton).

On 1 Nov 1843, at the British Embassy in Vienna, Henry (4th Marquis) married Emily Jane Mercer Elphinstone de Flahault, 6th Baroness Nairne (b. 16 May 1819 in Edinburgh; d. 26 Jun 1895 at Meiklour House). Emily was the grand daughter of Prince Tallyrand and the daughter of the Comte de Flahault. Emily and Henry had at least two children:

  • Lord Henry Charles Keith Petty-Fitzmaurice, 5th Marquis of Lansdowne (14 Jan 18453 Jun 1927)

  • Lord Edmond George Petty-fitzmaurice
    Born: 19 Jun 1846
    Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 1883-5, 1905-8.
    Created First Baron Fitzmaurice of Leigh in 1906. (English Baronetry)
    Died s.p. 21 Jun 1935, when the title became extinct.

    On 23 Nov 1889, Lord Edmond married Caroline FitzGerald. The marriage was annulled in 1894.

  • Emily Louisa Anne (d. 2 Dec 1939). On 2 Jun 1886, she married the Hon Everard Charles Digby (6 Sep 185216 Jan 1915).

 

Henry Charles Keith Petty-Fitzmaurice,
5th Marquis of Lansdowne, 6th Earl of Kerry

Born 14 Jan 1845. Died 3 Jun 1927 at Newtown Anner, Tipperary.

Son of Henry Petty-FitzMaurice, 4th Marquis of Lansdowne.

Henry (5th Marquis) was a member of the House of Lords,
Lord of the Treasury (186972),
Under Secretary of State for War (187274),
Under Secretary for India (1880),
Governor General of Canada (188388),
Viceroy of India (188894),
Secretary of State for War (18951900),
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs (12 Nov 190011 Dec 1905),
and Leader of the House of Lords until his death in 1927.215

Investiture as Knight of the Garter in 1895.

On 8 Nov 1869, in Westminster Abbey, London, England, Henry (5th Marquis) married Lady Maud Evelyn Hamilton (b. 17 Dec 1850 in London; d. 21 Oct 1932 in London). They had four children:

  • Lady Evelyn Emily Mary Fitzmaurice (27 Aug 18702 Apr 1960). On 30 Jul 1892, she married Victor Christian William Cavendish, 9th Duke of Devonshire (31 May 18686 May 1938).
     
  • Henry William Edmund Petty-FitzMaurice, 6th Marquis of Lansdowne (b. 14 Jan 18725 Mar 1936).
     
  • Charles George Francis Mercer Nairne (b. 12 Feb 1874; kia 30 Oct 1914), father of 8th Marquis of Lansdowne. On 20 Jan 1909, he married Lady Violet Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound (28 May 18893 Jan 1965). They had two children:
    • Mary Margaret Elizabeth (b. 6 Feb 1910) who, on 27 Jul 1931, married Ririd Myddelton (25 Feb 19021988).
    • George John Charles Mercer Nairne Petty-Fitzmaurice (27 Nov 191212 Aug 1997), 8th Marquis of Lansdowne.
       
  • Beatrix Frances Petty-Fitzmaurice (25 Mar 18775 Aug 1953). On 16 Oct 1897, she married firstly Henry de la Poer Beresford (28 Apr 18751 Dec 1911), 6th Marquis of Waterford. On 19 Aug 1918, Beatrix married secondly Osbourne de Vere Beauclerk (16 Oct 18742 Mar 1964), 12th Duke of St. Albans.

 

Henry William Edmund Petty-FitzMaurice,
6th Marquis of Lansdowne, 7th Earl of Kerry

(14 Jan 18725 Mar 1936)

Son of 5th Marquis of Lansdowne.

Henry (6th Marquis) was a Member of the House of Lords, a Member of Parliament for West Derbyshire (190818), and a Lt. Col. in the English army. He served during the Boer War and World War I.215

On 16 Feb 1904, Henry (6th Marquis) married Elizabeth Caroline Hope (4 Mar 188525 Mar 1964). They had at least five children:

  • Lady Katherine Evelyn Constance (Viscountess Mersey), (22 Jun 191220 Oct 1995), s. as 10th Bss Nairne in 1945. On 24 Jul 1933, she married Edward Clive Bigham (5 Jun 19062 Aug 1979), 3rd Viscount Mersey.
     
  • Henry Maurice John Petty-Fitzmaurice (7 Oct 191312 Sep 1933),
    8th Earl of Kerry
     
  • Charles Hope Petty-Fitzmaurice, 7th Marquis of Lansdowne (9 Jan 1917--20 Aug 1944).
     
  • Edward Norman Petty-Fitzmaurice (b. 28 Jul 1922; kia in Normandy 11 Aug 1944).
     
  • Lady Elizabeth Mary (b. 16 Mar 1927); m. Major (Retired) Charles William Lambton (b. 22 Aug 1921) of Coldstream Guards on 27 Jun 1950.

 

Charles Hope Petty-FitzMaurice,
7th Marquis of Lansdowne

(b. 9 Jan 1917; kia 20 Aug 1944 in Italy)

Son of 6th Marquis of Lansdowne.

Charles (7th Marquis) was a member of the House of Lords. He served as a Captain in the English army during World War II. In 1944, Charles was killed in action in Italy. He died unmarried.215

 

George John Charles Mercer Nairne
Petty-Fitzmaurice,
8th Marquis of Lansdowne

(27 Nov 1912 — 12 Aug 1997 ?)

Son of Charles George Francis Mercer Nairne, who was the son of 5th Marquis of Lansdowne.

CURRICULUM VITAE

  • Educated at Eton and at Christ Church, Oxford
     
  • Was a member of the Queen's Body Guard for Scotland, Royal Co. of Archers
     
  • 19391945, World War II: Capt. in Scots Greys and Maj. with Free French Forces; awarded Legion of Honour and Croix de Guerre
     
  • 1944: appointed Private Secretary to British Ambassador in Paris
     
  • 19571958: a Lord-in-Waiting to the Queen and Representative to the Council of Europe215
     
  • 19581962: Joint Parl. Under Sec. of State for Foreign Affairs
     
  • 19621964: Min. of State for Commonwealth and Colonial Affairs215
     
  • 1964: Privy Councilor

On 18 Mar 1938, George (8th Marquis) married Barbara Chase (d. 17 Feb 1965), the daughter of Harold Stuart Chase of Santa Barbara, California, U.S.A.218   They had four children:

  • Caroline Margaret (8 Jan 1939--27 Sep 1956),
     
  • Charles Maurice Mercer Nairne Petty-Fitzmaurice,
    9th Marquis of Lansdowne (b. 21 Feb 1941)
     
  • Lord Robert Harold Mercer Nairne (b. 16 Feb 1947). On 1 Nov 1972, he married Jane Gordon (b. 1 Sep 1950). They had three children:
    • Emily Jane (b. 3 Aug 1974)
    • Samuel George (b. 1976)
    • Joseph Douglas (b. 1980)
       
  • Lady Georgina Elizabeth Petty-Fitzmaurice (b. 10 Jan 1950). In 1974, she married firstly Guy Hamilton. They were divorced in 1980. She married secondly Robert Eric Miller.

In 1969, George (8th Marquis) married 2ndly the Hon. Selina Polly Dawson Eccles (b. 18 Jan 1937), daughter of the 1st Viscount Eccles and previously the wife of Robin Andrew Duthac Carnegie. George and Selina were divorced in 1978.

On 15 Oct 1978, George (8th Marquis)
married 3rdly Gillian Anna Morgan (d. 1982), daughter of Alured Morgan.

On 12 Jul 1995, George (8th Marquis)
married Penelope Eva Bradford (the Hon. Mrs. Astor).

 

Charles Maurice Mercer Nairne
Petty-FitzMaurice,
9th Marquis of Lansdowne

(b. 21 Feb 1941)

Son of 8th Marquis of Lansdowne.

CURRICULUM VITAE

  • Charles was educated at Eton.
  • Served in Kenya Regt., R. Wilts. Yeo. and R. Wessex Yeo.
  • 19561957: A Page of Honour to the Queen
  • 1970 and later: Co. Councillor of Wilts.
  • 19731976: Chm. N. Wilts. Dist. Council
  • 19721977: Member of S-W Economic Planning Council
  • 19721977: Chm. Population and Settlement Committee (SWEPC)

On 9 Oct 1965, Charles married Lady Frances Helen Mary Eliot (b. 6 Mar 1943), daughter of 9th Earl of St. Germans. They were divorced in 1987. They had four children:

  • Lady Arabella Helen Mary (b. 30 Aug 1966). In 1993, she married Rupert Unwin.
     
  • Lady Rachel Barbara Violet (b. 30 Jan 1968). In 1991, she married James Spickernell (b. 10 Apr 1965).
     
  • Simon Henry George (b. 24 Nov 1970), Earl of Kerry.
     
  • William Nicholas Charles (b. 25 Sep 1973).

In 1987, Charles married secondly Fiona Mary Merritt

 

Related Web Site

Welcome to Bowood

(with photos of first seven Marquis of Lansdowne)

 

 

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